The problem of fertility may be due to various reasons and depending upon the issue they are treated specifically according to the issues. Some of them might require general medication and some of them need to be treated through a surgical process. Let’s look over some common surgery, depending on the problems and various treatment adapted to increase the fertility rates in women.
The symptoms of women suffering from endometriosis are abdominal pain, pain with periods, or pain with sexual intercourse. It is also possible that some women do not show any of these symptoms and may have endometriosis. A means to check it is laparoscopy (a surgery where a doctor looks in the abdomen with a camera usually through the belly button) in which a sample of a suspected abnormality is taken from the belly button to have a close look and identify the abnormality.
Sometimes due to infection, previous surgeries or unknown reasons, thick or thin fibrous bands are formed between abdominal organs. In some other cases the organs, especially the intestines may stick together. These bands are called adhesions. Adhesions can cause pain, abdominal problems or may not cause any symptom at all. From the point of view of infertility, adhesions are important because they can distort tubes and interfere with their function. Therefore laparoscopic surgery is done to diagnose adhesions and remove them if possible.
Tuboplasty refers to the surgery that is done to restore the structure and latency of tubes. Two tubes are thin structures that attach to the ends of the uterus, which help in moving the egg and sperm towards each other. Tubes are at time damaged due to surgeries, infections or unknown reasons. Sometimes tuboplasty or reconciliation is done to restore patency of the tubes of females who have undergone sterilization.
Sometimes some females abnormally structured uterus. Some, such uteri may have a partially inside it. These partitions are called uterine septum. In most cases, these septum is diagnosed via a USG. The most common impact of these septum is recurrent abortions. The septum is easily corrected by hysteroscopist resection – a day care surgery.
Fibroids are the most common tutors of the uterus. Generally small fibroid neither cause any problem, nor do they interfere with getting pregnant. However, if a fibroid is larger, causes problems or is considered to be responsible for infertility than it may have to be removed. This surgery too can be laparoscopically. Each fibroid is different and so each surgical plan may also be different depending on the patient as well as the fibroid itself.
Some uteri can be barely developed from birth itself. In some such cases before initiation of any treatment uterine structure needs to be restored as much as possible. Most of these surgeries can be done laparoscopically.
This is one of the most common indication of laparoscopy in an infertile female. If in any patient an HSG tells us that the tubes are blocked, then we need to go in laparoscopically to try to open up the tubes so that the patient may get pregnant spontaneously or via medical treatment.
Many patients suffering from infertility have ovarian cysts. Not all cysts require surgery, but depending on the nature of the cyst and its size some cysts are to be operated upon before any treatment can be started.
This surgery mainly focuses on the reconstruction of the vagina. The damaged vagina is repaired to fix the pelvic organ prolapsed. It is basically done to ensure the normal vaginal structure and function. It is done to correct the congenital defects in the urethra and rectum. In some cases the vagina may be totally absent thus it also involves forming or reconstructing the vagina using Vaginoplasty. Sometimes Vaginoplasty is also recommended for the babies born with microphallus, transgender or transsexual women.